Super-Resolution Neural Operator, Min Wei, Xuesong Zhang. (2023)


We propose Super-resolution Neural Operator (SRNO), a deep operator learning framework that can resolve high-resolution (HR) images at arbitrary scales from the low-resolution (LR) counterparts. Treating the LR-HR image pairs as continuous functions approximated with different grid sizes, SRNO learns the mapping between the corresponding function spaces. From the perspective of approximation theory, SRNO first embeds the LR input into a higher-dimensional latent representation space, trying to capture sufficient basis functions, and then iteratively approximates the implicit image function with a kernel integral mechanism, followed by a final dimensionality reduction step to generate the RGB representation at the target coordinates. The key characteristics distinguishing SRNO from prior continuous SR works are: 1) the kernel integral in each layer is efficiently implemented via the Galerkin-type attention, which possesses non-local properties in the spatial domain and therefore benefits the grid-free continuum; and 2) the multilayer attention architecture allows for the dynamic latent basis update, which is crucial for SR problems to "hallucinate" high-frequency information from the LR image. Experiments show that SRNO outperforms existing continuous SR methods in terms of both accuracy and running time. Our code is at