Data-OOB: Out-of-bag Estimate as a Simple and Efficient Data Value, Yongchan Kwon, James Zou. Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Machine Learning(2023)


Data valuation is a powerful framework for providing statistical insights into which data are beneficial or detrimental to model training. Many Shapley-based data valuation methods have shown promising results in various downstream tasks, however, they are well known to be computationally challenging as it requires training a large number of models. As a result, it has been recognized as infeasible to apply to large datasets. To address this issue, we propose Data-OOB, a new data valuation method for a bagging model that utilizes the out-of-bag estimate. The proposed method is computationally efficient and can scale to millions of data by reusing trained weak learners. Specifically, Data-OOB takes less than 2.25 hours on a single CPU processor when there are $10^6$ samples to evaluate and the input dimension is 100. Furthermore, Data-OOB has solid theoretical interpretations in that it identifies the same important data point as the infinitesimal jackknife influence function when two different points are compared. We conduct comprehensive experiments using 12 classification datasets, each with thousands of sample sizes. We demonstrate that the proposed method significantly outperforms existing state-of-the-art data valuation methods in identifying mislabeled data and finding a set of helpful (or harmful) data points, highlighting the potential for applying data values in real-world applications.